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The report consider the application of AHP and ANP for prediction of probable modifications of the factors, which mainly influence a choice of a type of vibration isolation system for the manufacturing. Similar tasks take place in the problems of external designing, when it is necessary to make decision being effective in varying environment. ANP technique gives limiting impact priorities for influential factors when the experts' preferences are constant. AHP technique with use of the dynamic judgments enables to find out the tendencies of priorities changes based on the dynamic experts judgments, which are given by defined functions of time. The obtained outcomes are consistent and supplement each other.

Terjemahan dalam Pengajaran Bahasa Asing (Kedua): Sebuah Perspektif Metodologi. (E 282011-4 edu)

This paper discusses the act of translating between mother tongue and second/foreign language as a potentially effective way to improve learners’ second/foreign language. The author first examines the history of ‘translation’ as a methodology in second/foreign language teaching. The author then provides arguments in favour of including the methodology in SL/FL teaching in the current post-cognitive paradigm. The paper limits its theoretical perspective of the methodology to advanced level learners, and emphasises that the act of translating can create ideal learning opportunities with positive L1 use in SL/FL learning. The act of translating is a holistic activity, which immediately compels the learners to pay more attention to the SL/FL text, which encourages their awareness of form and meaning in context and improves their reading and writing skills in SL/FL. The methodology further enhances learners’ general skills of noticing and observing details of the linguistic systems, cultures, and societies of L1 and SL/FL, in order to deliver the messages between the two languages. This can expand the SL/FL learning to beyond the classroom

Pengaruh Tujuan Membaca Pengaturan pada Retensi Kosakata dari peserta didik dalam Belajar Bahasa Asing. (E 282011-3 edu)

Studi menyelidiki efek dari menetapkan tujuan membaca di retensi kosakata pembaca EFL. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengetahui jenis tujuan dapat lebih berpengaruh terhadap retensi kosa kata. Populasi meliputi 120 siswa, 16 sampai 18 tahun, dan semua perempuan di  SMP (Iran). Dari mereka 60 siswa homogen dipilih melalui memberikan satu Nelson Uji Kemahiran (2001). Mereka dibagi menjadi empat kelompok dari 15 siswa, tiga kelompok dengan tujuan membaca yang berbeda dan kelompok kontrol.Setelah pengobatan, tes posting kosakata diberikan untuk semua kelompok setelah dua minggu. Kemudian  ANOVA digunakan untuk menganalisis hasil tes. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara kelompok dengan tujuan yang berbeda dan kelompok kontrol.Penemuan menyarankan bahwa menetapkan tujuan membaca memiliki efek positif pada retensi kosakata pengajaran dan kelompok kesenangan dan efek negatif pada pengambilan kelompok uji.

EFL Learners' Vocabulary Acquisition in Translational Writing. (E 28211-2 edu)

Previously, researchers examined the effects of utilising monolingual dictionaries compared to bilingual and bilingualised dictionaries in an EFL learning environment as to their efficacy in improving culture-specific skills in translation. This study was set to investigate the comparative effects of using only monolingual dictionaries as opposed to using bilingualised dictionaries during vocabulary acquisition in a Translation course. Participants consisted of 60 Level II students of English. A test comprising 100 low-frequency words and 100 sentences manipulating each word as a translational writing task was administered at the end of the semester. Three experimental groups, one studying vocabulary with monolingual dictionaries, another with bilingual dictionaries, and a third with bilingualised dictionaries were used for checking the efficacy with which any/all of the three types of dictionaries can best help students acquire new lexicon. The study tested participants on their comprehension of and ability to use these words using sentences of their own on translational writing tasks. Results suggest that bilingualised dictionaries are more effective than monolingual and bilingual dictionaries and that bilingualised dictionaries are more effective than monolingual dictionaries, the last two dictionaries being the least effective. Suggestions for further work and implications for ELT pedagogy have been forwarded at the end.

Piaget "s egosentrisme dan Belajar Bahasa: Bahasa egosentrisme dan Diferensiasi Bahasa. (E 282011-1 edu)

Teori Piaget,   adalah pusat dari pendekatan kognitif dan landasan teoritis utama dalam hal pengembangan cerdas, menjelaskan belajar bahasa anak-anak dengan menggunakan empat tahap perkembangan kognitif.   Makalah ini   fokus pada dasar pendidikan penting dan informasi, yang dapat membuktikan betapa Bahasa egosentrisme  dan Diferensiasi Bahasa (LD) memiliki pengaruh pada akuisisi bahasa asli dan bahasa kedua bagi anak-anak muda (dua sampai tujuh tahun). 
Indeks Persyaratan-Bahasa egosentrisme (LE), Bahasa Diferensiasi (LD), bahasa mekanik belajar, akuisisi bahasa kedua, Piaget

Mengintegrasikan DPSIR dengan Analytic Network Process untuk penilaian strategi pengelolaan hutan. (E 18211-10 anp)

The application of the DPSIR evaluation scheme is processing a holistic view on the performance of forest management strategies with pressures driven by external forces influencing the actual states of a forest and their impacts over time, yet to be antagonized by management responses. Covering all this, the overall results of the ANP evaluation show an undisputed favour of the conversion strategy for all time steps and climate change scenarios with regard to the principles of SFM. A transformation of the present conifer plantations dominated by Norway Spruce to more close-to-nature forests by introducing and pre-planting deciduous tree species is promising on the long run.
Hence, it has been the rationale of this study to combine the strengths of tools that enhance system understanding and those of multi-criteria decision making for the purposes of SFM while keeping the whole concept at least semi-quantitative by integrating ecosystem modelling results. This integration creates new viewpoints towards the communication of decision-making, towards the relations between ecosystem and decision-modelling, and towards the applicability of established approaches per se.

Potensi dan keterbatasan analisis metode multi-kriteria dalam menilai pengelolaan hutan lestari. (E 182011-9)

European commitments towards sustainable forest management (SFM) are well established at the political level. However, progress in implementing the principles of SFM at the operational scale lags behind. As an option to foster this process, the application of indicators within a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) framework is proposed.
In this contribution, Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART), the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the Analytic Network Process (ANP), PROMETHEE I/II and ELECTRE III are applied to assess the performances of four management units representing different forestry regimes within a region. A recently developed set of indicators at forest management unit level is used in the analysis.
The implementation of SFM requires a holistic view on multiple goals and values, the awareness of uncertain and inhomogeneous knowledge, the guidance of stakeholder involvement and a spatially explicit long-term perspective. Against this background, the potentials and limits of each MCA method to assess SFM are compared with regard to (i) handling preferences and trade-offs between indicators, (ii) sensitivity in covering complex information on the human-ecosystem interaction, (iii) dealing with thresholds and uncertainty of value information, (iv) participatory planning and group decision making processes, and (v) communicative features.


New or improved decision analysis tools are developed in this thesis to address strategic policy analysis with specific focus on two topics: strategic conflict analysis and region-performance comparisons.
A strategic conflict refers to a situation in which two or more decision makers (DMs) are to make a decision that affects issues over which they have different preferences. Various forms of strategic conflict exist all around us, in areas such as environmental management, international relations, economic competition, and relationships among individuals. The graph model for conflict resolution (GMCR) is an advanced and comprehensive tool to systematically study strategic conflicts. A well-known decision tool, the analytic network process (ANP) is adapted for use in strategic conflict analysis and a comparison of the performance of ANP with GMCR is carried out. Both methods are applied to an international trading conflict between the United States and China over the importation of television sets into the US in order to gain strategic insights about this dispute using the two different but complementary approaches.
A country’s overall performance comparison with respect to different kinds of indices such as economic, environmental and political indices constitutes another interesting topic for strategic policy analysis. An index aggregation approach is proposed to compare BRICSAM countries, a populous rapidly-growing economic group of nations consisting of Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations), and Mexico with G7 (Group of Seven), the most developed country club including Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom and the United States. A data-envelopment-analysis (DEA) based approach is proposed to aggregate different ranking indices for BRICSAM and the G7 countries. The proposed method can provide a fair overall assessment of a country’s standing by maximizing its possibility of obtaining the best evaluation score.
Finally, a framework to carry out generic strategic analysis for regions’ competence analysis is designed based upon the theory of generic strategic analysis proposed by Porter (1980). This is a well-known approach for use in business competence analysis. The basic idea is to carry out generic strategic analysis in policy studies and two decision tools, DEA and the analytic hierarchy process, are employed to quantify the analysis of competence efficiency and potentiality, respectively. A case study of the competence analysis of provinces in China is used to demonstrate the analysis procedure.

Merancang sistem kelompok pendukung keputusan di bawah ketidakpastian menggunakan Grup Fuzzy Analytic Network Process. (E 182011-7 anp)

Handling uncertainty in decision making is recently receiving considerable attention by researchers. Advances in group Fuzzy analytic network process (ANP) are discussed to support decision making because of the complexity and vagueness under uncertainty. An adaptive group Fuzzy ANP group decision support system (DSS) under uncertainty is put forth that makes up for some deficiencies in the conventional ANP. Fuzzy judgments are firstly used when it is difficult to characterize the uncertainty by point-valued judgments due to partially known information, and a bipartite graph is formulated to model the problem of group decision making under uncertainty. Then, a Fuzzy prioritization method is proposed to derive the local priorities from missing or inconsistent Fuzzy pairwise comparison judgments. As a result of the unlikeliness for all the decision makers to evaluate all elements under uncertainty, an original aggregation method is developed to cope with the situation where some of the local priorities are missing. Finally, an evaluation of petroleum contaminated site remedial countermeasures using the proposed group Fuzzy ANP, indicates that the presented group DSS can effectively handle uncertainty and support group decision making with high level of user satisfaction
Kata kunci: Kelompok pendukung keputusan, ketidakpastian, proses jaringan analitik, kelompok ANP Fuzzy, agregasi, situs perbaikan penanggulangan.

Alat Evaluasi Mengidentifikasi Implikasi Perubahan Iklim dan Pembangunan Ekonomi Keberlanjutan (E 182011-6 anp)

Research on developing well designed evaluation tools will provide the information and understanding necessary for identifying more effective adaptation options and better management plans for ensuring regional sustainability. This paper presents an integrated approach that integrates ecosystem vulnerability identification, adaptation option evaluation, and multi-stakeholder participation. The integrated approach will be applied in Lijiang and Yulong Mountain region of China for identifying desirable resource management plans to reduce ecosystem vulnerabilities. Different computer- and non-model based methods will be adopted to form the integrated approach. The research starts with data collection and the identification of vulnerabilities of ecosystems and economic sectors to climate and socio-economic changes. This is followed by survey and interviews that allow stakeholders to participate in a multi-criteria evaluation of adaptation options. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), an MCDM technique, will be employed as an adaptation evaluation tool to rank desirability of resource management plans. The paper will provide some articulation on how the integrated approach can provide an effective mean for the synthetic evaluation of the general desirability levels of a set of resource management plans through a multi-criteria and multi- stakeholder decision making process. Thus, the study contributes to the science of ecosystem assessment.

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